1 a watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates through the vascular system of a plant
3 a piece of metal covered by leather with a flexible handle; used for hitting people [syn: blackjack, cosh]
1 deplete; "exhaust one's savings"; "We quickly played out our strength" [syn: run down, exhaust, play out, tire]
Etymology 1From sæp; akin to Old High German saf, German saft, Dutch sap, Icelandic safi; of uncertain origin; possibly akin to Latin sapere ‘to taste, to be wise’, sapa ‘must or new wine boiled thick’; compare sapid and sapient.
juice of plant
sapwood of a tree
- Dutch: slappeling, imbeciel, idioot, simpele
- Finnish: hölmö
- Italian: sempliciotto, imbecille, stupido
- Norwegian: tosk
a leather-covered hand weapon
- Italian: manganello
Etymology 2From saper (compare Spanish zapar and Italian zapare) from sape ‘sort of scythe’, from sappa ‘sort of mattock’.
narrow ditch or trench
- Finnish: juoksuhauta (most often "juoksuhauta" would translate into English as "trench". In Finnish the same word covers also "sap")
- To subvert by
digging or wearing away;
to mine; to undermine; to destroy the foundation of.
- Nor safe their dwellings were, for sapped by floods, / Their houses fell upon their household gods. — John Dryden
- In the context of "transitive|military": To pierce with saps.
- To make unstable or
infirm; to unsettle; to weaken.
- Ring out the grief that saps the mind. — Alfred Tennyson
- To gradually weaken.
- to sap one’s conscience
- To proceed by
mining, or by secretly undermining; to execute saps — rfdate provide
real quoteW. P. Craighill
- Both assaults carried on by sapping. — The Tatler
- To strike with a sap (with a blackjack).
pierce with saps
make unstable; weaken
- Dutch: knagen aan, aantasten
proceed by mining
- Dutch: ondergraven
- "Sap" redirects here. For other uses see sap (disambiguation).
Xylem sap consists primarily of water, with hormones, mineral elements, and other nutrients dissolved in the sap. Transport of sap in xylem is generally "basipetal", or upward from the roots toward the leaves. Over the past century, there has been some controversy regarding the mechanism of xylem sap transport, although most plant scientists today agree that the bulk of the evidence supports the cohesion-tension theory of xylem sap transport. Phloem sap consists primarily of water, with sugars, hormones, and mineral elements dissolved in the sap. Phloem sap transport occurs from sources (a location where carbohydrates are produced or stored) toward sinks (a location where carbohydrates are utilized). The pressure flow hypothesis proposes a mechanism for phloem sap transport.
Maple syrup is made from reduced maple tree xylem sap. In some countries (e.g., Russia or Latvia) it is common to collect the early spring sap of birch trees (so called "birch juice") for human consumption; the sap can be used fresh or fermented. "Birch juice" is slightly sweet and very refreshing, but tends to become bitter in late spring; the rule of thumb is to collect it before any green leaves have appeared.
- Angeles, G., B.J. Bond, J.S. Boyer, T.J. Brodribb, J.R. Brooks, M.J. Burns, J.M. Cavender-Bares, M.J. Clearwater, H. Cochard, J.P. Comstock, S.D. Davis, J.-C. Domec, L.A. Donovan, F.W. Ewers, B.L. Gartner, U.G. Hacke, T.M. Hinckley, N.M. Holbrook, H.G. Jones, K.L. Kavanagh, B.E. Law, J. Lopez-Portillo, C. Lovisolo, T.A. Martin, J. Martinez-Vilalta, S. Mayr, F.C. Meinzer, P.J. Melcher, M. Mencuccini, S.S. Mulkey, A. Nardini, H. Neufeld, J.B. Passioura, W.T. Pockman, R.B. Pratt, S. Rambal, H. Richter, L. Sack, S. Salleo, A. Schubert, P.J. Schulte, J.P. Sparks, J.S. Sperry, R.O. Teskey, and M.T. Tyree. 2004. The cohesion-tension theory. New Phytologist 163:451-452.
- Raven, P.H., Evert, R.F. and Eichhorn, S.E. 1999. Biology of Plants. W.H. Freeman.
- Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. 1998. Plant Physiology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.
sap in Arabic: نسغ
sap in Bulgarian: Мъзга
sap in French: Sève
sap in Indonesian: Getah
sap in Lithuanian: Sula
sap in Dutch: Sap (plant)
sap in Polish: Sok mleczny
sap in Portuguese: Seiva bruta
sap in Swedish: Sav
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